DIFFRENT TYPES OF OFFICE PLANS

__ Cubicle office plan

This is one of the most common types of open office plans, where the workstations are set up as cubicles, generally with three walls of partitioning around them. This layout provides the greatest level of privacy outside of a closed office plan and can help control noise levels, especially when good sound barriers are used for the partitioning.

Advantages of cubicles 

Privacy – Cubicles give privacy to employees. Employees enjoy privacy, especially when working on sensitive subjects. With privacy comes a sense of ownership. Cubicles come with desks and cabinets, so employees can lock up their essentials before leaving for the day rather than carrying them back and forth from home.

Standardization – By providing cubicles to all employees, you can be fair to each of them. No one will feel that the other person has a better office. The feeling that everyone is being treated fairly will help to create better team spirit within the office.

Better use of space – Cubicles allow you to create many separate workspaces in a large area. They take up less space than traditional office rooms with doors and walls.

Reduce distractions – When people work in cubicles, they are less prone to being distracted. Cubicles not only act as physical barriers; they help keep the office quieter by disrupting sound waves. You can be assured of higher productivity if there are cubicles in the office.

Cost effective – Cubicles cost much less than having offices for all of your employees. Used office cubicles are even cheaper. By purchasing from Office Solutions, Inc. in Charlotte, you can reduce your costs significantly.

Disadvantages of cubicles

Cubicles are definitely a cost-effective solution. But some companies use cubicles that leave their employees very little space: just enough for a chair and desk. Employees find such cubicles depressing and uncomfortable to work in.

Saving money is not the only benefit when you choose to buy used cubicles. You are also helping to save the environment. So go to Office Solutions, Inc. in Charlotte and see all the different sizes and models of cubicles you can use to build your workspace. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Cubicles in the Office.

 

 

 

closed office

A closed office space plan, also known as enclosed office or private office design, is an office space design that uses panels and cubicles to create separate individual work spaces for each individual employee. This concept was created in the late 60s’ by designer Robert Propst and was initially termed the ‘Action Office’. The design caught on quickly as offices all over America started installing cubicles for their employees. In the past few years, the popularity of closed offices has been decreasing due to the rise of the open office concept. Nonetheless, it is still one of the most popular office space designs used today.

Advantages

Privacy

One of the fatal flaws of open office is its inherent lack of privacy for the employees. However, this is not an issue with private or closed office plans. In an enclosed office space, employees can enjoy complete privacy. They don’t have to move away to take a call or have a small impromptu meeting with another colleague. It also allows them freedom to personalize their cubicles and create an environment that is comfortable and increases their productivity.

Concentration

The noise and bustle of an open office often makes it hard for employees to concentrate on their work. Private offices provide a distraction free environment for the employees, allowing them to focus on their work without any interruption, intentional or otherwise. This is especially helpful for professionals like programmers and QA engineers, whose work would otherwise get affected due to the constant distraction of an open office.

Creativity

Creative work often requires a quiet space for reflection and contemplation which a closed office can easily provide. In an open office your employee might get disturbed by a demanding coworker or the sound of people talking on the phone, which might interrupt a clever chain of thought. In a private office though, this is very unlikely. Thus, closed offices foster creativity.

 

Disadvantages

Space Consumption

Enclosed offices require significantly more space than an open office plan. Since each employee has their own cubicle or work space, the space required can be rather high. This can also lead to a significant increase in the company’s spending, especially if they are located in a major city with high prices for office space.

Low Supervision

Supervising employees in a closed office environment can be rather difficult. Unlike in an open office where a sweeping glance across the room will tell you what each employee is doing, private office plan requires supervisors to visit each cubicle to see what the employees are up to, which can be tedious. Some employees might even take advantage of the privacy afforded by a cubicle, to waste time during work hours and not do their work.

Low Communication

Closed office spaces are not ideal for good communication between employees. Since all the employees are separated, members of a team will have to keep moving to collaborate on a project. Moreover, enclosed offices promote communication via chats and emails which is good for keeping records, but not as effective at producing result as face to face communication.

 

Expensive

Closed offices are rather expensive to construct and run compared to open office spaces. Closed offices require more space (as we discussed above) which requires more money for the extra office space. Closed offices also need more budget for the installation of cubicles and panel that separate individual work stations. The cost of heating, air conditioning, lighting and other logistics are also higher in closed office spaces.

 

 

 

Open-Plan Office Space

An open-plan office space layout has pros and cons both for a firm’s personnel and its bottom line. In an open-plan work environment, there are no distinct rooms or fully enclosed spaces. Instead, workstations are positioned together — sometimes separated by short screens or panels — within one exposed floor plan. The openness may improve communication and collaboration among your workers, but it also may reduce concentration and productivity

Advantages

— A lack of walls or other physical barriers in open-plan office spaces makes it easier for employees to interact with each other on a regular basis. The constant intermingling not only generates a sense of camaraderie among personnel, it also enhances the flow of information and teamwork. Colleagues can turn to each other for advice or assistance without having to knock on doors or schedule a formal meeting. Interactions in an open-plan office space generally are more frequent and informal than in closed environments where everyone has a separate office space.

— The increased collaboration resulting from an open-plan work space can lead to business innovation and advancement. At the same time, an open-plan layout can benefit the business economically by reducing costs tied to construction, utilities and office equipment. For example, fewer walls mean less time and materials required to create the office space. Having a single work space also may reduce heating/cooling and electricity expenses thanks to improved flow of air and light. Businesses can save on equipment investment as well, since communal spaces promote shared use of resources, such as printers, copiers and staplers. An open-plan space also provides greater flexibility to accommodate evolving personnel needs.

 

Disadvantages

— On the downside, the high level of everyday interaction that takes place in an undivided work space may lead to noise and distractions that make it difficult for employees to focus on their work and conduct business. Lack of privacy is another potential problem with open-plan office spaces, where computer screens are easily visible by those walking by and telephone conversations are likely to be overheard. Open-plan layouts also facilitate the spread of disease, so if a colleague comes to work with a cold, it can affect the health of the entire staff.

— Most of the factors that are disadvantages for personnel also are detrimental to the business as a whole. For example, the distractions caused by frequent interactions among staff members and high levels of noise can result in decreased productivity. Business output also may be reduced by the higher rate of absenteeism associated with open-plan environments in which disease spreads more easily. In addition, the lack of privacy inherent in open-plan designs may give rise to legal or ethical issues stemming from compromised confidentiality in regard to clients or colleagues.

 

How to reset a BlackBerry smartphone

Inside BlackBerry Help Blog

Note: If you are using a BlackBerry Z10, check out our post on how to restart a BlackBerry 10 smartphone

Some useful information every savvy BlackBerry® smartphone owner should know is how to reset their device. A reset of a BlackBerry smartphone is a troubleshooting method that completely turns off and restarts the operating system software and applications of a BlackBerry smartphone. In terms of troubleshooting, it is a useful first step if a BlackBerry smartphone is experiencing hardware, software, or wireless network issues.

There are two options when performing a reset: a hard reset or a soft reset. The difference between the two is that performing a hard reset involves removing the battery temporarily, whereas when performing a soft reset, a key combination is used to reset the BlackBerry smartphone.

Both options accomplish the same goal – restarting the BlackBerry smartphone – but an important thing to know…

View original post 361 more words

BlackBerry 10.3.2 Battery Tips

Inside BlackBerry Help Blog

If you are using a BlackBerry 10 device and would like to maximize your battery life here are some tips that can help you out!

Check for BlackBerry 10 OS Updates

3Way-OTAWhenever a BlackBerry 10 OS update is released, make sure you install it on your device so you can take advantage of optimizations that can help improve your battery life. Typically, you’ll receive a notification of an update, but to manually check for updates, open Settings, tap Software Updates, and then Check for Updates.

For a complete overview of how to update your device, check out our…

View original post 1,842 more words

TECHNOLOGY

Technology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the use and knowledge of techniques and processes for producing goods and services. For other uses, see Technology (disambiguation).

steam turbine with the case opened. Most electricity is produced by thermal power stations with turbines like this one. Electricity consumption and living standards are highly correlated.[1] Electrificationwas voted the most important engineering achievement of the 20th century.[2]

Technology (from Greek τέχνη, techne, “art, skill, cunning of hand”; and -λογία, -logia[3]) is the collection of techniques, methods or processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, etc. or it can be embedded in machines, computers, devices and factories, which can be operated by individuals without detailed knowledge of the workings of such things.

The human species’ use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistoricdiscovery of how to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.

Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today’s global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of Earth’senvironment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.

Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddismanarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.

Contents

[hide]

Definition and usage

The spread of paper and printing to the West, exemplified by the printing press, made it possible forscientists and politicians to communicate their ideas with ease, leading to the Age of Enlightenment; an example of technology as a cultural force.

The use of the term “technology” has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, and usually referred to the description or study of the useful arts.[4] The term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chartered in 1861).[5]

The term “technology” rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution. The term’s meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technikinto “technology”. In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which usually translates both terms as “technology”. By the 1930s, “technology” referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves.[6]

In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that “technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them.”[7] Bain’s definition remains common among scholars today, especially social scientists. But equally prominent is the definition of technology as applied science, especially among scientists and engineers, although most social scientists who study technology reject this definition.[8] More recently, scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of “technique” to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault‘s work on technologies of the self (techniques de soi).

Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary offers a definition of the term: “the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area” and “a capability given by the practical application of knowledge”.[9] Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 “Real World of Technology” lecture, gave another definition of the concept; it is “practice, the way we do things around here”.[10] The term is often used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole.[11]Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as “the pursuit of life by means other than life”, and as “organized inorganic matter.”[12]

Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material; virtual technology, such as computer software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology.[13] W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a similarly broad way as “a means to fulfill a human purpose”.[14]

The word “technology” can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity’s knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; it includes technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials. When combined with another term, such as “medical technology” or “space technology”, it refers to the state of the respective field’s knowledge and tools. “State-of-the-art technology” refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field.

The invention of integrated circuits and the microprocessor (here, an Intel 4004 chip from 1971) led to the moderncomputer revolution.

Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture.[15] Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and, as a result, has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyberculture has, at its basis, the development of theInternet and the computer.[16] Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way; technology can also help facilitate political oppressionand war via tools such as guns. As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor.

Science, engineering and technology

Antoine Lavoisier conducting an experiment with combustion generated by amplified sun light

The distinction between science, engineering and technology is not always clear. Science is the reasoned investigation or study of natural phenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal world by employing formal techniques such as the scientific method.[17] Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such asutilityusability and safety.

Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means, often (but not always) using results and techniques from science. The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematicallinguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result.

Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering — although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors, by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines, such as semiconductorscomputers, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference.[18]

The exact relations between science and technology in particular have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can inform the funding of basic and applied science. In the immediate wake of World War II, for example, in the United States it was widely considered that technology was simply “applied science” and that to fund basic science was to reap technological results in due time. An articulation of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush‘s treatise on postwar science policy, Science—The Endless Frontier: “New products, new industries, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature … This essential new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientific research.” In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). The issue remains contentious—though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientific research.[19][20]

History

Main articles: History of technologyTimeline of historic inventions and Timeline of electrical and electronic engineering

Paleolithic (2.5 million YA – 10,000 BC)

A primitive chopper

Further information: Outline of prehistoric technology

The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of foraginghominids which were already bipedal,[21] with a brain mass approximately one third of modern humans.[22] Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history. Approximately 50,000 years ago, the use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of fully modern language.[23]

Stone tools

Hand axes from theAcheulian period

Clovis point, made viapressure flaking

Human ancestors have been using stone and other tools since long before the emergence of Homo sapiens approximately 200,000 years ago.[24]The earliest methods of stone tool making, known as the Oldowan “industry”, date back to at least 2.3 million years ago,[25] with the earliest direct evidence of tool usage found in Ethiopia within the Great Rift Valley, dating back to 2.5 million years ago.[26] This era of stone tool use is called thePaleolithic, or “Old stone age”, and spans all of human history up to the development of agriculture approximately 12,000 years ago.

To make a stone tool, a “core” of hard stone with specific flaking properties (such as flint) was struck with a hammerstone. This flaking produced a sharp edge on the core stone as well as on the flakes, either of which could be used as tools, primarily in the form of choppers or scrapers.[27]These tools greatly aided the early humans in their hunter-gatherer lifestyle to perform a variety of tasks including butchering carcasses (and breaking bones to get at the marrow); chopping wood; cracking open nuts; skinning an animal for its hide; and even forming other tools out of softer materials such as bone and wood.[28]

The earliest stone tools were crude, being little more than a fractured rock. In the Acheulian era, beginning approximately 1.65 million years ago, methods of working these stone into specific shapes, such as hand axes emerged. The Middle Paleolithic, approximately 300,000 years ago, saw the introduction of the prepared-core technique, where multiple blades could be rapidly formed from a single core stone.[27] The Upper Paleolithic, beginning approximately 40,000 years ago, saw the introduction of pressure flaking, where a wood, bone, or antler punch could be used to shape a stone very finely.[29]

Fire

Main article: Control of fire by early humans

The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind.[30] The exact date of its discovery is not known; evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1,000,000 BC;[31] scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus had controlled fire by between 500,000 BC and 400,000 BC.[32][33] Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and broadening the number of foods that could be eaten.[34]

Clothing and shelter

Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both technologies cannot be dated exactly, but they were a key to humanity’s progress. As the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became more sophisticated and more elaborate; as early as 380,000 BC, humans were constructing temporary wood huts.[35][36] Clothing, adapted from the fur and hides of hunted animals, helped humanity expand into colder regions; humans began to migrate out of Africa by 200,000 BC and into other continents, such as Eurasia.[37]

Neolithic through classical antiquity (10,000 BC – 300 AD)

An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools

Man’s technological ascent began in earnest in what is known as the Neolithic period (“New stone age”). The invention of polished stone axes was a major advance because it allowed forest clearance on a large scale to create farms. The discovery of agriculture allowed for the feeding of larger populations, and the transition to a sedentist lifestyle increased the number of children that could be simultaneously raised, as young children no longer needed to be carried, as was the case with the nomadic lifestyle. Additionally, children could contribute labor to the raising of crops more readily than they could to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle.[38][39]

With this increase in population and availability of labor came an increase in labor specialization.[40] What triggered the progression from early Neolithic villages to the first cities, such as Uruk, and the first civilizations, such as Sumer, is not specifically known; however, the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures, the specialization of labor, trade and war amongst adjacent cultures, and the need for collective action to overcome environmental challenges, such as the building of dikes and reservoirs, are all thought to have played a role.[41]

Metal tools

Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided the ability to smelt and forge native metals (naturally occurring in relatively pure form).[42] Goldcopper,silver, and lead, were such early metals. The advantages of copper tools over stone, bone, and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of Neolithic times (about 8000 BC).[43] Native copper does not naturally occur in large amounts, but copper ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wood or charcoal fires. Eventually, the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass (about 4000 BC). The first uses of iron alloys such as steel dates to around 1400 BC.

Energy and transport

The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC.

Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. The earliest known use of wind power is the sailboat.[44] The earliest record of a ship under sail is shown on an Egyptian pot dating back to 3200 BC.[45] From prehistoric times, Egyptians probably used the power of the Nile annual floods to irrigate their lands, gradually learning to regulate much of it through purposely built irrigation channels and ‘catch’ basins. Similarly, the early peoples of Mesopotamia, the Sumerians, learned to use the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for much the same purposes. But more extensive use of wind and water (and even human) power required another invention.

According to archaeologists, the wheel was invented around 4000 B.C. probably independently and nearly simultaneously in Mesopotamia (in present-day Iraq), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe. Estimates on when this may have occurred range from 5500 to 3000 B.C., with most experts putting it closer to 4000 B.C. The oldest artifacts with drawings that depict wheeled carts date from about 3000 B.C.; however, the wheel may have been in use for millennia before these drawings were made. There is also evidence from the same period of time that wheels were used for the production of pottery. (Note that the original potter’s wheel was probably not a wheel, but rather an irregularly shaped slab of flat wood with a small hollowed or pierced area near the center and mounted on a peg driven into the earth. It would have been rotated by repeated tugs by the potter or his assistant.) More recently, the oldest-known wooden wheel in the world was found in the Ljubljana marshes of Slovenia.[46]

The invention of the wheel revolutionized activities as disparate as transportation, war, and the production of pottery (for which it may have been first used). It did not take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads and fast (rotary) potters’ wheels enabled early mass production of pottery. But it was the use of the wheel as a transformer of energy (through water wheels, windmills, and even treadmills) that revolutionized the application of nonhuman power sources.

Medieval and modern history (300 AD – present)

Main articles: Medieval technologyRenaissance technologyIndustrial RevolutionSecond Industrial Revolution and Information Technology

Innovations continued through the Middle Ages with innovations such as silk, the horse collar and horseshoes in the first few hundred years after the fall of the Roman Empire.Medieval technology saw the use of simple machines (such as the lever, the screw, and the pulley) being combined to form more complicated tools, such as the wheelbarrow,windmills and clocks. The Renaissance brought forth many of these innovations, including the printing press (which facilitated the greater communication of knowledge), and technology became increasingly associated with science, beginning a cycle of mutual advancement. The advancements in technology in this era allowed a more steady supply of food, followed by the wider availability of consumer goods.

The automobilerevolutionized personal transportation.

Starting in the United Kingdom in the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution was a period of great technological discovery, particularly in the areas of agriculturemanufacturingminingmetallurgy and transport, driven by the discovery of steam power. Technology later took another step with the harnessing of electricity to create such innovations as the electric motorlight bulb and countless others. Scientific advancement and the discovery of new concepts later allowed for powered flight, and advancements in medicinechemistryphysics and engineering. The rise in technology has led to the construction of skyscrapers and large cities whose inhabitants rely on automobiles or other powered transit for transportation. Communication was also greatly improved with the invention of the telegraphtelephoneradio and television. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a revolution in transportation with the invention of the steam-powered shiptrainairplane, and automobile.

F-15 and F-16 flying over a burningoil field in Kuwait in 1991.

The 20th century brought a host of innovations. In physics, the discovery of nuclear fission has led to both nuclear weapons and nuclear powerComputers were also invented and later miniaturized utilizingtransistors and integrated circuits. The technology behind got called information technology, and these advancements subsequently led to the creation of the Internet, which ushered in the current Information Age. Humans have also been able to explore space with satellites (later used for telecommunication) and in manned missions going all the way to the moon. In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and treatments. Complex manufacturing and construction techniques and organizations are needed to construct and maintain these new technologies, and entire industries have arisen to support and develop succeeding generations of increasingly more complex tools. Modern technology increasingly relies on training and education — their designers, builders, maintainers, and users often require sophisticated general and specific training. Moreover, these technologies have become so complex that entire fields have been created to support them, including engineeringmedicine, and computer science, and other fields have been made more complex, such as construction,transportation and architecture.

Philosophy

Technicism

Generally, technicism is a reliance or confidence in technology as a benefactor of society. Taken to extreme, technicism is the belief that humanity will ultimately be able to control the entirety of existence using technology. In other words, human beings will someday be able to master all problems and possibly even control the future using technology. Some, such as Stephen V. Monsma,[47] connect these ideas to the abdication of religion as a higher moral authority.

Optimism

See also: Extropianism

Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological development as generally having beneficial effects for the society and the human condition. In these ideologies, technological development is morally good. Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism andtechno-utopianism and fear the notion of human enhancement and technological singularity which they support. Some have described Karl Marx as a techno-optimist.[48]

Skepticism and critics

See also: LudditeNeo-luddismAnarcho-primitivism and Bioconservatism

Luddites smashing a power loom in 1812

On the somewhat skeptical side are certain philosophers like Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan, who believe that technological societies are inherently flawed. They suggest that the inevitable result of such a society is to become evermore technological at the cost of freedom and psychological health.

Many, such as the Luddites and prominent philosopher Martin Heidegger, hold serious, although not entirely deterministic reservations, about technology (see “The Question Concerning Technology[49]). According to Heidegger scholars Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa, “Heidegger does not oppose technology. He hopes to reveal the essence of technology in a way that ‘in no way confines us to a stultified compulsion to push on blindly with technology or, what comes to the same thing, to rebel helplessly against it.’ Indeed, he promises that ‘when we once open ourselves expressly to the essence of technology, we find ourselves unexpectedly taken into a freeing claim.’[50]” What this entails is a more complex relationship to technology than either techno-optimists or techno-pessimists tend to allow.[51]

Some of the most poignant criticisms of technology are found in what are now considered to be dystopian literary classics, for exampleAldous Huxley‘s Brave New World and other writings, Anthony Burgess‘s A Clockwork Orange, and George Orwell‘s Nineteen Eighty-Four. And, in Faust by Goethe, Faust’s selling his soul to the devil in return for power over the physical world, is also often interpreted as a metaphor for the adoption of industrial technology. More recently, modern works of science fiction, such as those by Philip K. Dick andWilliam Gibson, and films (e.g. Blade RunnerGhost in the Shell) project highly ambivalent or cautionary attitudes toward technology’s impact on human society and identity.

The late cultural critic Neil Postman distinguished tool-using societies from technological societies and, finally, what he called “technopolies,” that is, societies that are dominated by the ideology of technological and scientific progress, to the exclusion or harm of other cultural practices, values and world-views.[52]

Darin Barney has written about technology’s impact on practices of citizenship and democratic culture, suggesting that technology can be construed as (1) an object of political debate, (2) a means or medium of discussion, and (3) a setting for democratic deliberation and citizenship. As a setting for democratic culture, Barney suggests that technology tends to make ethical questions, including the question of what a good life consists in, nearly impossible, because they already give an answer to the question: a good life is one that includes the use of more and more technology.[53]

Nikolas Kompridis has also written about the dangers of new technology, such as genetic engineeringnanotechnologysynthetic biology and robotics. He warns that these technologies introduce unprecedented new challenges to human beings, including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers, scientists and public intellectuals who have written about similar issues (e.g. Francis FukuyamaJürgen HabermasWilliam Joy, and Michael Sandel).[54]

Another prominent critic of technology is Hubert Dreyfus, who has published books On the Internet and What Computers Still Can’t Do.

Another, more infamous anti-technological treatise is Industrial Society and Its Future, written by Theodore Kaczynski (aka The Unabomber) and printed in several major newspapers (and later books) as part of an effort to end his bombing campaign of the techno-industrial infrastructure.

Appropriate technology

See also: Technocriticism and Technorealism

The notion of appropriate technology, however, was developed in the 20th century (e.g., see the work of E. F. Schumacher and of Jacques Ellul) to describe situations where it was not desirable to use very new technologies or those that required access to some centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from elsewhere. The eco-villagemovement emerged in part due to this concern.

Competitiveness

Boeing 747-8 wing-fuselage sections during final assembly

Technology is properly defined as any application of science to accomplish a function. The science can be leading edge or well established and the function can have high visibility or be significantly more mundane but it is all technology, and its exploitation is the foundation of all competitive advantage.

Technology-based planning is what was used to build the US industrial giants before WWII (e.g., DowDuPontGM) and it what was used to transform the US into a superpower. It was not economic-based planning.

Project Socrates

This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article’s subject matter. Please help improve this article by clarifying or removing superfluous information(May 2015)

In 1983 Project Socrates was initiated in the US intelligence community to determine the source of declining US economic and military competitiveness. Project Socrates concluded that technology exploitation is the foundation of all competitive advantage and that declining US competitiveness was from decision-making in the private and public sectors switching from technology exploitation (technology-based planning) to money exploitation (economic-based planning) at the end of World War II.

Project Socrates determined that to rebuild US competitiveness, decision making throughout the US had to readopt technology-based planning. Project Socrates also determined that countries like China and India had continued executing technology-based (while the US took its detour into economic-based) planning, and as a result had considerably advanced the process and were using it to build themselves into superpowers. To rebuild US competitiveness the US decision-makers needed to adopt a form of technology-based planning that was far more advanced than that used by China and India.

Project Socrates determined that technology-based planning makes an evolutionary leap forward every few hundred years and the next evolutionary leap, the Automated Innovation Revolution, was poised to occur. In the Automated Innovation Revolution the process for determining how to acquire and utilize technology for a competitive advantage (which includes R&D) is automated so that it can be executed with unprecedented speed, efficiency and agility.

Project Socrates developed the means for automated innovation so that the US could lead the Automated Innovation Revolution in order to rebuild and maintain the country’s economic competitiveness for many generations.[55][56][57]

Other animal species

See also: Tool use by animalsStructures built by animals and Ecosystem engineer

This adult gorilla uses a branch as a walking stick to gauge the water’s depth, an example of technology usage by non-human primates.

The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans. These include primates such as chimpanzees, some dolphin communities,[58][59] and crows.[60][61] Considering a more generic perspective of technology as ethology of active environmental conditioning and control, we can also refer to animal examples such as beavers and their dams, or bees and their honeycombs.

The ability to make and use tools was once considered a defining characteristic of the genus Homo.[62] However, the discovery of tool construction among chimpanzees and related primates has discarded the notion of the use of technology as unique to humans. For example, researchers have observed wild chimpanzees utilising tools for foraging: some of the tools used include leaf sponges, termite fishing probes, pestles and levers.[63] West African chimpanzees also use stone hammers and anvils for cracking nuts,[64] as do capuchin monkeys of Boa Vista, Brazil.[65]

Future technology

Main article: Emerging technologies

Theories of technology often attempt to predict the future of technology based on the high technology and science of the time.

21 men caught with 122 condoms arrested for being in a ‘Gay Cult” in Ibadan

Twenty-one young men under the age of 25 have been arrested in Nigeria for being in a ‘gay cult’.The young men, who were caught with 122 condoms between them, were held in an Ibadan police station last week.

According to Gaystar news,when police flooded the house, the officers accused them of holding an ‘initiation’ ceremony into their ‘evil’ group.

They had no formal charge against them, but relied on the presence of the condoms with no female present. They also claimed they received a tip saying the occupants of the room were gay.

The organizer of the event told officials that it was actually just a birthday party and they had nothing to do with any ‘cult’.
All 21 were immediately taken into the police station.Human rights organization The Initiative for Equal Rights (TIER) received a call on 10 May and immediately started helping the young men.

A spokesperson said:

‘At the point of arrest, the young men were physically assaulted and treated in a manner unbecoming of any legal process: they were photographed in their underwear, made to write statements under duress and locked up in an overcrowded cell.’While the police wished to refuse bail and transfer the case to the state courts, a lawyer from the International Center for Reproductive Health and Sexual Rights (INCRESE) managed to allow them to pay for their freedom.

The individuals were given varying bail notices, from 5,000 Nigerian naira ($25, €22) to 10,000 naira ($50, €44). The organizer of the party had to pay 21,000 Nigerian naira ($105, €92).

They did not want to appeal against their treatment in case it would lead them to being outed and branded as gay.

While 11 had family and friends to bail them out, 10 were left in detention.

When all 21 returned to the police station on Thursday (14 May), it was alleged the police further extorted more money from each of them before they were allowed to leave.