Urban and Rural Development and Patterns of Human Settlement: By the amended 1991 local government edict, all local government headquar ters are designated urban. This is not necessarily on the basis of population size, but the administrative function they are expected to perform. Such functions have led to the siting of relevant departments and offices by both federal, state and private companies.

Their newly acquired status has also led to some road construction, provision of basic amenities and services such as electricity, pipe borne water, health and postal services. Telephone services are available in Birnin Kebbi, Argungu, Yauri and Zuru only. Kebbi State has twentytwo urban areas including Koko, against the twentyone designated local government headquarters. Using population size, the eight major urban centres in the state are listed on Table 22.2.

These urban areas account for only about 12.5 percent of the population of the state. Thus more than eighty percent of population live in the rural areas in basically three forms of settlements; dispersed, nucleated and linear, with most residing in what could best be described as nucleated. People have concentrated along river valleys and close to sources of drinking water particularly in the drier parts of the state in Gwandu and Argungu emirates.

Whereas, in the more humid areas such as in Yauri and Zuru emirates, many nucleated settle ments have been relocated. Linear settlements, mainly as a response to the penetration of road network to transport farm produce and more recently to move people, have emerged.

These linear settlements always have an indigenous or early settlement where the village or district head resides. Incidentally, due to easy access, linear settlements have attracted more people at the expense of the older nucleated settle ments which at best could be said to be declining. Younger generations and a number of prospective businessmen have settled in the new (linear) settle ments leaving the aged at the older site.

One can, in many cases, see the distinction between the old and new (linear settlement) in the types of building and morphology. In the drier areas of Arewa Dandi and part of the humid south, where animal rearing is a major occupation, dispersed settlements are common amongst the Fulani, Arawa Dakarkari and Kambari. Many dispersed settlements are also common even amongst farming communities in these areas.

By their nature and design, therefore, they represent the least developed groups and areas as it has always been difficult for the state to provide them with any of the basic facilities and services. Development in the rural areas has been geared towards improving the life of the rural dwellers so as to discourage rural-urban drift.

Towards this end, the government has embarked upon a number of projects which include rural water supply schemes, rural electrification using diesel generating plants, construction of rural feeder roads and rural health centres, building of schools for both regular and nomadic children and the provision of basic farm inputs, credit and implements.

Problem of urban Primacy: Kebbi State has no problem of urban primacy. Prior to colonialism, Birnin Kebbi (the state capital) had to contend with the supremacy of Sokoto, the headquarters of the caliphate, and the emirates headquarters of Argungu, Zuru and Yauri.

Each of these, except Sokoto Emirate, consists of different cultural groups and at various times were at war with Kebbi before European colonisation in 1780 (Last, 1967). Furthermore, even after 1900, the emirates were allowed to develop independently, with a disposition towards Sokoto. Since independence in 1960, and following early state creation, the city of Sokoto had always been the state capital, (Northwest and Sokoto State) until 1991 when Kebbi State was created.

The creation of local government areas, the location of emirate headquarters away from major roads linking the north to the south, the decline in oil revenue and the fact that many of these emirate headquarters were basically agrarian with no commerce or industry, have militated against the emer gence of primate cities in Kebbi State.

Read more: http://www.onlinenigeria.com/links/kebbiadv.asp?blurb=301#ixzz3ZrjuuGTT



ini nd rita
For those who are very close to these top actresses and producers, Ini Edo-Ehiagwina and Rita Dominic, this story is actually hitting the news desk late. This is because the actresses have remained sworn enemies for almost three years now. According to the information, beautiful Ini Edo and pretty Rita are not only beefing each other but also have gradually turned irreconcilable enemies for many months.

It was revealed that enmity started between these actresses when Rita allegedly went to Ini to beg for Akwa-Ibom state governor’s contact, after explaining that she was in quest of sponsorship for her movie production. Having heard that the governor loves entertainment industry, especially Nollywood, she assumed that her movie job will be supported fully.

Mrs. Ehiagwina who was very close to Akwa-Ibom governor, God’swill Akpabio before her wedding to Mr. Philip Ehiagwina allegedly not only gave her close friend and colleague the contact she needed, but also directed her on how to get the goodwill from the governor.
However, the bubble burst when Ms. Dominic was claimed to have demanded more than movie support, and started going behind Ini to enjoy other largesse and the other things that have actually became history.
Happily married Mrs. Ehiagwina was said to have discovered this development many months ago during her few visits to her state’s government house, where she ran into Ms. Dominic. Since then, it has been a cold war to finish between the two actresses.

they have rejected all efforts made by their close friends to settle their misunderstanding, as they do not say ‘Hi’ to each other or even come a bit close to each other no matter who is watching.
Nevertheless, sincere friends are still begging Ini Edo to please forgive Rita and settle the long rift as fighting does not bring any credit.

Micro Tug Robots Can Pull Objects 2,000 Times Their Own Weight


Micro Tug Robots Can Pull Objects 2,000 Times Their Own Weight
by John Biggs

Like the noble ant or the sassy-yet-lovable tugboat, Micro Tugs can pull more than their own weight. The robots, which come from Sanford’s Biomimetics and Dextrous Manipulation Lab, use a “controllable adhesive” plate that sticks to surfaces only when shear pressure is applied. In one case a 12 gram robot was able to pull objects […]

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mus x

While insisting that the concept of marital rape does not exist in Islam, religious scholars say it is sinful for a Muslim man to force his wife to have s3x when she is ill or menstruating.

Perak Mufti Tan Sri Harussani Zakaria said that men can always have s3xual intercourse with their spouses even if the latter do not agree, saying that a Muslim woman has “no right” to reject her husband’s demand. Continue…

“Even the Prophet says even when they’re riding on the back of the camel, when the husband asks her, she must give.

“So there’s no such thing as rape in marriage. This is made by European people, why should we follow?” he told Malay Mail Online when contacted as he cited the hadith or reported teachings of Prophet Muhammad.

Harussani claimed that Europe itself did not regard women highly before creating the concept of marital rape after the 18th century when Europeans came into contact with the Muslims and were attempting to improve Islamic laws.

According to Harussani, a woman’s agreement to marry will be sought when her father gives her away to a man in marriage. Subsequently, she can only refuse her husband s3x if she is menstruating, sick, or has just given birth, he said.

“Once she got married, the dowry is paid, she can’t refuse unless when she’s [on her] period,” he said, saying that the Quran clearly states that it will be “haram” or forbidden to have a s3xual intercourse with a woman who is menstruating.
admin | April 30, 2015 at 12:05 pm | Tags: A Muslim Woman Has No Right To Reject Her Husband’s S3xual Demand- Scholar | Categories: Relationship | URL: http://wp.me/p5gU5X-3d6


PERIODIC LAW, in chemistry, law stating that many of the physical and chemical properties of the elements tend to recur in a systematic manner with increasing atomic number. Progressing from the lightest to the heaviest atoms, certain properties of the elements approximate those of precursors at regular intervals of 2, 8, 18, and 32. For example, the 2d element (helium) is similar in its chemical behavior to the 10th (neon), as well as to the 18th (argon), the 36th (krypton), the 54th (xenon), and the 86th (radon). The chemical family called the halogens, composed of elements 9 (fluorine), 17 (chlorine), 35 (bromine), 53 (iodine), and 85 (astatine), is an extremely reactive family.

Historical Development.

As a result of discoveries that firmly established the atomic theory of matter advanced by the British chemist and physicist John Dalton in 1803, scientists were able to determine the relative weights of atoms of the then known elements. The development of electrochemistry during this period by the British chemists Sir Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday led to the discovery of many additional elements. By 1829 a sufficient number of elements had been discovered to permit the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1780-1849) to observe that certain elements with closely similar properties occur in triads, or groups of three, such as chlorine, bromine, and iodine; calcium, strontium, and barium; sulfur, selenium, and tellerium; and iron, cobalt, and manganese. Because of the limited number of known elements and the confusion that existed concerning the distinction between atomic weights and molecular weights, chemists were unable to grasp the significance of the Döbereiner triads.

The development of the spectroscope in 1859 by the German physicists Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff made possible the discovery of many more elements (see SPECTRUM). In 1860, at the first international chemical congress ever held, the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro clarified the fact that some of the elements-for example, oxygen-have molecules containing two atoms. This realization finally enabled chemists to achieve a self-consistent listing of the elements.

These developments gave new impetus to the attempt to reveal interrelationships among the properties of the elements. In 1864 the British chemist John A. R. Newlands (1837-98) listed the elements in the order of increasing atomic weights and noted that a given set of properties recurs at every eighth place. He named this periodic repetition the law of octaves, by analogy with the musical scales. Newlands’s discovery failed to impress his contemporaries, probably because the observed periodicity was limited to only a small number of the known elements.

Mendeleyev and Meyer.

The chemical law that the properties of all the elements are periodic functions of their atomic weights was developed independently by two chemists: in 1869 by Dmitry Mendeleyev, a Russian, and in 1870 by Julius Lothar Meyer, of Germany. The key to the success of their efforts was the realization that previous attempts had failed because a number of elements were as yet undiscovered and that vacant places must be left for such elements in the classification. Thus, although no element then known had an atomic weight between those of calcium and titanium, Mendeleyev left a vacant space for it in his table. This place was later assigned to the element scandium, discovered in 1879, which has properties justifying its position in the sequence. The discovery of scandium proved to be one of a series of dramatic verifications of the predictions based on the periodic law, and validation of the law accelerated the development of inorganic chemistry.

The periodic law has undergone two principal elaborations since its original formulation by Mendeleyev and Meyer. The first revision involved extending the law to include a whole new family of elements, the existence of which was completely unsuspected in the 19th century. This group comprised the first three of the noble, or inert, gases (see NOBLE GASES), argon, helium, and neon, discovered in the atmosphere between 1894 and 1898 by the British physicist John William Strutt, 3d Baron Rayleigh, and the British chemist Sir William Ramsay. The second development in the periodic law was the interpretation of the cause of the periodicity of the elements in terms of the Bohr theory (1913) of the electronic structure of the atom (see ATOM AND ATOMIC THEORY).

Short-Form Periodic Table.

The periodic law is most commonly expressed in chemistry in the form of a periodic table, or chart. The so-called short-form periodic table, based on Mendeleyev’s table, with subsequent emendations and additions, is still in widespread use. In this table the elements are arranged in seven horizontal rows, called the periods, in order of increasing atomic weights, and in 18 vertical columns, called the groups. The first period, containing two elements, hydrogen and helium, and the next two periods, each containing eight elements, are called the short periods. The remaining periods, called the long periods, contain 18 elements, as in periods 4 and 5, or 32 elements, as in period 6. The long period 7 includes the actinide series , which has been filled in by the synthesis of radioactive nuclei through element 103, lawrencium. Heavier transuranium elements , atomic numbers 104 to 112, have also been synthesized.

The groups or vertical columns of the periodic table have traditionally been labeled from left to right using Roman numerals followed by the symbol a or b, the b referring to groups of transition elements . Another labeling scheme, which has been adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), is gaining in popularity. This new system simply numbers the groups sequentially from 1 to 18 across the periodic table.

All the elements within a single group bear a considerable familial resemblance to one another and, in general, differ markedly from elements in other groups. For example, the elements of group 1 (or Ia), with the exception of hydrogen, are metals with chemical valence of +1, while those of group 17 (or VIIa), with the exception of astatine, are nonmetals commonly forming compounds in which they have valences of – 1.

Electron Shell Theory.

In the periodic classification, noble gases, which in most cases are unreactive (valence = 0), are interposed between highly reactive metals that form compounds in which their valence is +1 on one side and highly reactive nonmetals forming compounds in which their valence is -1 on the other side. This phenomenon led to the theory that the periodicity of properties results from the arrangement of electrons in shells about the atomic nucleus. According to the same theory, the noble gases are normally inert because their electron shells are completely filled; other elements, therefore, may have some shells that are only partly filled, and their chemical reactivities involve the electrons in these incomplete shells. Thus, all the elements that occupy a position in the table preceding that of an inert gas have one electron less than the number necessary for completed shells and show a valence of -1, corresponding to the gain of one electron in reactions. Elements in the group following the inert gases in the table have one electron in excess of the completed shell structure and in reactions can lose that electron, thereby showing a valence of +1.

An analysis of the periodic table, based on this theory, indicates that the first electron shell may contain a maximum of 2 electrons, the second builds up to a maximum of 8, the third to 18, and so on. The total number of elements in any one period corresponds to the number of electrons required to achieve a stable configuration. The distinction between the a and b subgroups of a given group also may be explained on the basis of the electron shell theory. Both subgroups have the same degree of incompleteness in the outermost shell but differ from each other with respect to the structures of the underlying shells. This model of the atom still provides a good explanation of chemical bonding.

Quantum Theory.

With the development of the quantum theory and its application to atomic structure by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr and other scientists, most of the detailed features of the periodic table have found a ready explanation. Every electron is characterized by four quantum numbers that designate its orbital motion in space. By means of the selection rules governing these quantum numbers and the exclusion principle of Wolfgang Pauli, which states that two electrons in the same atom cannot have all four quantum numbers the same, physicists can determine theoretically the maximum number of electrons required to complete each shell, confirming the conclusions inferred from the periodic table.

Further development of the quantum theory revealed why some elements have only one incomplete shell (namely, the outermost, or valence, shell), whereas others may have incomplete underlying shells as well. In the latter category is the group of elements known as the rare earth elements , which are so similar in properties that Mendeleyev had to assign all 14 to a single place in his table. The rare earth group includes the elements in the lanthanide series .

Long-Form Table.

The application of the quantum theory of atomic structure to the periodic law has led to the redesign of the periodic table in the so-called long form, which emphasizes this electronic interpretation. In the long-form table, each period corresponds to the building up of a new electronic shell. Elements that are directly in line with each other have strictly analogous electronic structures. The beginning and end of a long period represent the addition of electrons in a valence shell; in the central portion the number of electrons in an underlying shell increases.

The periodic law has been found to correlate a great many different properties of the elements, including such physical properties as melting and boiling points, densities, crystal structures, hardness, electrical conductivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity, and such chemical properties as reactivity, acidity or basicity, valence, polarity, and solubility. S.Z.L.


For further information on this topic, see the Bibliography, section Chemical elements.


It is a binding fact that are computers are very productive, efficient and make our personal and professional lives more rewarding. These ‘magical’ machines can do just about anything imaginable, moreover they really excel in certain areas. Below is the list of some of the principal applications of the computer systems:


Businessmen make bar graphs and pie charts from tedious figures to convey information with far more impact than numbers alone can covey. Furthermore, computers help businesses to predict their future sales, profits, costs etc. making companies more accurate in their accounts. Computers may also play a vital role in aiding thousands of organizations to make judgmental and hard-provoking decisions concerning financial problems and prospective trends.


Architects use computer animated graphics to experiment with possible exteriors and to give clients a visual walk-through of their proposed buildings. The computers provide architects a numerous amount of facilities to create different buildings with greater accuracy, better designing and editing tools, and work done at the fastest speed possible. Finally, a new kind of artist has emerged, one who uses computers to express his or her creativity.


Most good schools in the world have computers available for use in the classroom. It has been proved that learning with computers has been more successful and this is why numerous forms of new teaching methods have been introduced. This enhances the knowledge of the student at a a much faster pace than the old traditional methods. Likewise, colleges and various universities have extended the use of computers as many educators prefer the ‘learning by doing’ method – an approach uniquely suited to the computer.


Energy companies use computers to locate oil, coal, natural gas and uranium. With the use of these technological machines, these companies can figure out the site of a natural resource, its concentration and other related figures. Electric companies use computers to monitor vast power networks. In addition, meter readers use hand held computers to record how much energy is used each month in homes and offices.

Law Enforcement

Recent innovation in computerised law enforcement include national fingerprint files, a national file on the mode of operation of serial killers, and computer modeling of DNA, which can be used to match traces from an alleged criminal’s body, such as blood at a crime scene. In addition, computers also contain a complete databases of all the names, pictures and information of such people who choose to break the law.


Computers are used in cars to monitor fluid levels, temperatures and electrical systems. Computers are also used to help run rapid transit systems, load containerships and track railroads cars across the country. An important part is the air control traffic systems, where computers are used to control the flow of traffic between airplanes which needs a lot of precision and accuracy to be dealt with.


Computers speed up record keeping and allow banks to offer same-day services and even do-it yourself banking over the phone and internet. Computers have helped fuel the cashless economy, enabling the widespread use of credit cards, debit cards and instantaneous credit checks by banks and retailers. There is also a level of greater security when computers are involved in money transactions as there is a better chance of detecting forged cheques and using credit/debit cards illegally etc.


Farmers use small computers to help with billing, crop information, and cost per acre, feed combinations, and market price checks. Cattle ranchers can also use computers for information about livestock breeding and performance.


Among other tasks, the federal government uses computers to forecast the weather, to manage parks and historical sites, to process immigrants, to produce social security checks and to collect taxes. The most important use of the computer system in in this field is perhaps the Army, the Air Force and the Navy. The computers have to be very powerful and in order to be run they have to be very accurate and precise. E.g. in the use of missiles and other likes, every nanosecond counts, which may save trillions of lives on this planet. The government also uses computers in various simulations like the spread of influenza in a particular locality.

The Home

People having a computer in the home justifies the fact that it is not only useful and efficient, but it is also revered as a learning system. Personal computers are being used for innumerous tasks nowadays, for example, to keep records, write letters and memos, prepare budgets, produce presentations, draw pictures, publish newsletters and most importantly – connect with other in the rest of plant earth.

Health and Medicine

Computers are helping immensely to monitor thee extremely ill in the intensive care unit and provide cross-sectional views of the body. This eliminates the need for hired nurses to watch the patient twenty-four hours a day, which is greatly tiring and error prone. Doctors use computers to assist them in diagnosing certain diseases of the sort. This type of computer is called the Expert System, which is basically a collection of accumulated expertise in a specific area of field. Computers are now able to map, in exquisite detail, the structure of the human cold virus – the first step towards the common cold. Furthermore, computers are used greatly in managing patients, doctors, wards and medicine records, as well as deal with making appointments, scheduling surgeries and other likes.

Manufacturing Industries

Computers have made their way towards jobs that were unpleasant or too dangerous for humans to do, such as working hundreds of feet below the earth or opening a package that might contain an explosive device. In other industries, computers are used to control the production of resources very precisely. All robots and machinery are now controlled by various computers, making the production process faster and cheaper. All the stages of manufacturing, from designing to production, can be done with the use of computer technology with greater diversity.

The Human connection

The computers have evolved in such prosperity that it is now able to assist or aid with humans who are disabled – both physically and mentally. The handicapped are now able to express their missing sense with the aid of computer technology. For example, a deaf and dumb person is able to communicate extensively with other people by using a specially designed computer system. This gives the disabled a chance to live out life and gradually catch up with the other fortunate people living on earth.

Scientific Research

This is very important for mankind and with the development of computers; scientific research has propelled towards the better a great deal. Because of high-speed characteristics of computer systems, systems, researchers can simulate environments, emulate physical characteristics and allow scientists to proof of their theories in a cost-effective manner. Also many test lab animals are spared since computers have taken over their roles in extensive research.

Communication with the World

The computes are most popular for their uses to connect with others on the World Wide Web. Therefore, communication between two or more parties is possible which is relatively cheap considering the old fashioned methods. Emailing, teleconferencing and the use of voice messages are very fast, effective and surprisingly cheaper as well. When connected to the Internet, people can gain various amounts of knowledge, and know about world events as they occur. Purchasing on the Internet is also becoming very popular, and has numerous advantages over the traditional shopping methods.


It is much more cheaper and effective to teach pilots how to fly in a computerised cockpit or simulators, than is real airplanes. This is because the learning pilots will feel much more relaxed and confident due to the fact that no life is at risk at that moment. Railway engineers can also be given some kind of training on how to run a train with the help of a computerised system. Training simulations are relatively cheaper and are always available on one-to-one basis making way for personal training.


Computer systems will increasingly cut down the paperwork that is involved in millions of industries around the world. If a business is run on a manual system, then the amount of papers or registers involved is a great deal, making the administration process more tedious and error prone. If it is replaced by a computer system, then all the necessary data and information is transferred into the memory of the computer. This makes managing various tasks easier, faster and more effective than the manual system. Organisations that involve administrative tasks such as a hotel, school, hospitals, clubs, libraries etc. will become more efficient if a computer system is implemented.

Real Time systems

Many computers provide an environment, which is completely based on real time. This means processing of one entity is done so quickly and effectively, that another entity is not effected. For example Airline systems and Banking systems will come under this category. These systems are immensely huge because they interact with all other airlines or baking systems in the world. A computer system, therefore, becomes more than just necessary in daily uses.

There are so many applications of computers, that it is impractical to mention all of them. This is the Computer Age and these machines are beginning to affect out lives in many ways. Computers are now becoming faster, more reliable, effective and whole lot cheaper than they had been ever before.


In the world of today, things are been developed day by day and this is done by the knowledge obtained from education. So Education means more than acquiring knowledge. It empowers people to develop personally and become polititically active. Education is also the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgement, and generally of preparing oneself or others future challenges.

Knowledge is power- this insight is at least four centries old, formulated by francis bacon during the enlightenment. His statement has lost nothing in terms of relevance and signifance. Knowledge is power, and education is the fundament precondition for political development, democaracy and social justice.

Education as a source of power, stands as a process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university.

Education is a cognitive mapping of reliable access to optimal states of mind. Education is an all round development both socially, economically and spirituially.

Education defines the lives and concerns of many young people in some countries like China and many develpoped countries in the world. It was the educated and the middle class that set protests in motion. Particularly the younger among them: 20-35 year olds, often students or academics, who felt decieved by the regime and slighted in opportunites. From Rabat to Riad.

Education empowers, and education promotes greater participation.

There is no development without education : but two of Asia’s fastest growing economics, India and China, show that education has economic advantages. A third example: In the 1950s, south Korea was in worse condition than many African countries are today. Investments in equal education access for men and women, together with better health care and access to shelter, have contributed to a decrease in infact mortality rates and to an economic boom.          

Education has been the main key to knowledge for years. The power of education extends beyound the development of skills we need for economic success. It can contribute to nation-building and reconcilation.

Signifance of this power

Education has the power to change everything: just imagine being born into east Africa where the average persons earns $1.50 per day yet must pay $450 for one year of public university. So what happens if you are dedicated to create a better world but you are not born with the previledge to gain a higher level education ? The answer is simple: lack of opportunity equals the lack of ability to make changes that our world needs. The main known nelson mandela said ‘education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.. Educated students have the power to change lives, their community and the world.

Educaton changes a country standard: compare the world of today and the world of before, you will notice difference, and what do you think brought the difference, the answer is EDUCATION. Looking at the development done over the years since the beginning of time, improvement of knowledge (i.e. education) brought the development of technolgy to the world and standard of a country.

Education means participation: In long run ,no illegitimate regime will be able to withstand the power of a well-educated majority. Once such a populace is in place, it opens up the possibility of greater participation and democratic change. A well-edcated citizen knows right to vote and be voted for. Education is the princle thing for participation in things that are reconized in the world of the today.

A fundamental human rights: there is no development without education. The world community has long since reconized this fact and developed clear political demands and consciousness on the subject as well. Education brings the development of human rights in the world.

It gives room to deep knowledge of the global environment eradicating ignorance.

It is a source of self empowerment, independent and confidence.

It eliminates all the diseases associated with illiteracy: education solves all the problems allocated with those who have not gone to school .

Education is knowledge and knowledge is power